Counselling is useful for people who need practical advice and skills to cope with difficult relationships or situations. It can be combined with the deeper exploration of psychotherapy depending on what the person needs at the time. If stress or symptoms are mainly related to a specific situation then practical advice and learning better skills of coping or communicating can be effective. Examples are adjusting to changes in one’s life such as leaving home, seeking work, recovering from illness or managing retirement.
Counselling is generally more short-term and focused or may also be combined with coaching or training.
Psychotherapy is an important intervention if the person targeted by bullying has experienced prolonged duress over a period of time or has symptoms of trauma, loss of confidence and diminished resilience. Symptoms may include sleeplessness, nightmares, dread and panic about going to work, avoidance of specific places and people, numbness, depression, excessive self-doubt and physical symptoms.
Psychotherapy aims to restore trust and a sense of safety within oneself and in relation to the world. This is a process that takes time and motivation for the person to regain the strength to return to the workplace. If a psychological injury claim has been accepted, treatment should be available through the insurance company as part of a return to work programme.